Is that coffee or chocolate?
Having just eaten my daily portion of chocolate covered coffee beans, I am primed to consider the questions I hear about coffee when I teach on the chocolate trail. How do the two foods really differ, other than taste? I think back to when the layout for On the Chocolate Trail was being designed and the publishing team offered up images of coffee beans instead of cocoa beans. The beans do look similar, as below, and that understandable mistake was fixed. And, then, just the other night an audience member asked about chocolate and coffee both being exported from the port of Mocha. That may not be the case since chocolate did not originate near Yemen, the location of Mocha, see the chart. Indeed, chocolate preceded coffee and tea to Europe. And, both stimulant drinks did help Europeans transition from dependence on beer to avoid unhygienic water. Now coffee far outstrips sales of hot chocolate. The chart below offers up some of the differences in growing, processing, and history.
|Plant originates in Ethiopia according to legend, was commercially developed in Yemen, then the drink spread to Mecca, Cairo, the broader Middle East, Italy & elsewhere||Originates in South America, likely Ecuador, then travels north to Central America & further|
|First confirmed use is 15th c. at Sufi monasteries in Yemen||First evidence of use is 5300 years ago|
|Grows 23º north and south of the Equator. Some types prefer high altitudes, some may be grown at sea level. Terroir is an important factor.||Grows 20º north and south of the Equator. Terroir influences the taste.|
|Pit found within a "cherry" or berry generally containing two seeds on an evergreen shrub or bush||Cacao seeds are found within the pulp of pods on the cacao tree|
|Processing could be by dry or wet method include drying, hulling, roasting, and grinding||Requires fermentation, drying and roasting, shelling, winnowing, and grinding|
|To create eating chocolate processing involves conching, tempering, and molding|
|Several types of Arabica and Robusta||Types were generally known as Criollo, Forastero, Trinitario, and Nacional; today, experts consider at least ten types, with dozens of genetic varieties|
|Infusion drink||Suspension drink|
|Arrives in Europe in mid-17th century||Arrives in Europe at the end of the 16th century|
Of course coffee and chocolate make for a delicious combination. Perhaps it is no surprise that they were respectively sold at the first English coffee house in Oxford, England, then at coffee houses everywhere, as today. The Italians of Turin developed a decadent layered bicerin drink of chocolate, coffee, and cream. When the Boston Tea Party destroyed shipments of tea to protest British tea taxes in 1773, chocolate and coffee became preferred, politically correct drinks. We may never know with certainty when mocha came to refer to a coffee/chocolate mix. Thankfully, we can enjoy it not only in our beverages but also in sweets.
Panettone for Breakfast?
While we tend to think of panettone as a Christmas bread, Jewish food writer Edda Servi Machlin shared this version of panettone from her childhood experiences in Italy of eating it for breakfast. She provides an authentic yet simpler process than most panettone recipes and a very tasty one at that. Enjoy it whenever youRead more ›
Kaak: Recipe for Crunchy Yeast Biscuits
Eat kaak all year round or save them for special celebrations, as do many communities of the Middle East and Sephardim (Jews descended from Spain). Kaak (kahk, ka’ak) are ubiquitous, multi-faith and multi-cultural doughy treats eaten throughout the Middle East where they take on regional flavors. In Arabic kaak means cake or baked good.The EgyptianRead more ›
Boulou: North African Orange Bread
Almost cake-like, though not a cake, this orange tinged bread enhances any holiday table. Read my story about diasporic Rosh Hashanah celebratory breads at the Jewish Week, “Beyond Challah and Honey.” Prep time: 2-2.5 hours Rising time: 40-45 minutes Baking time: 30 minutes Yield: 2 small loaves adapted from Jewish Food Experience, Leah Hadad INGREDIENTSRead more ›
Pan de Calabaza: Pumpkin Challah
This bread brings fall ingredients to your festive meals and reflects the longtime usage of pumpkin among Sephardi Jews. See the Jewish Week for my story about unusual Rosh Hashanah breads, “Beyond Challah and Honey: Rosh Hashanah Breads From Around the World.” Prep time: 30 minutes Rising time: 1 hour 45 minutes Baking time: 45Read more ›
Some Previous Posts
(in alphabetical order)
- Ambasha (aka Himbasha, Hambasha) Ethiopian Wedding Bread
- Cheese Babka Recipe
- Chocolate Chip Cookie Chronicles: Inventions & Elections
- Is that coffee or chocolate?
- Lachuch (aka Lahoh or Lahuh): A Yemenite Flatbread for Shabbat
- Los Siete Cielos or Seven Heaven Challah Recipe
- Lunch and Learn: Tasting the Best Chocolate
- On the Chocolate Trail in Belize’s Jungle
- Other Wedding Bread Customs
- Pan de Calabaza: Pumpkin Challah
- Recipe for Dabo: Ethiopian Pan Cooked Shabbat Bread
- Recipe for Fancy Shapes in Dough: Shaping Dough
- Saluf (aka Salouf or Saloof): Recipe for a Yemenite Flatbread for Shabbat
- Seeking A Shikker Challah
- What is the Chocolate Babka Project?
- What's a Key (shlissel) Challah?
- What? No Babka at Catskills Hotels? *
- Yeast Raised Khachapuri Recipe
- Yemarina Yewotet Dabo: Ethiopian Honey Bread