On the Chocolate Trail

Quality chocolate

[1763] Peter Swagard advertised his chocolate-only business in New York, where he “carries on as usual, the Business of Chocolate Grinding, and supplying his customers with Chocolat which they and all others who are pleased to favour him with their Custom, may depend on being served with the best and at the most reasonable rate.”1

[1770] John Goldsmith advertised: “Choice Chocolate made and Sold by John Goldsmith… Also all Sorts of Groceries. The Chocolate will be waranted good and sold at the chepest Rates—Cash given for Cocoa. Cocoa manufactured for Gentlemen in the best Manner. ALSO, Choice COCOA and Cocoa Nut Shells.”2

[1773] Daniel Bell announced assorted goods including “Cocoa of an extraordinary Quality, just arrived, the best warranted chocolate… ”3

[1774] Palmer published:


Made and Sold by

Humphry Palmer and William Wheat

at the Paper-Mills in Providence

They also take Cocoa to make up for Merchants or Traders… {also}

warranted Chocolate and Cocoa Shells… 4

[1776 and 1777] John Hannon, Baker’s early partner advertised similarly:



Exceeding Fine; to be sold… 5





Mark’d upon each Cake J.H.N.

Warranted pure and ground exceeding fine. Where may be had any Quantity, from 50 wt to a Ton of Cocoa at his Mills in Milton.

NB. If the Chocolate does not prove good, the Money will be returned.6

1 New York Gazette (May 23 1763): 4.

2 Boston Gazette and Country Journal (April 30 1770): Supplement 1.

3 Boston Gazette and Country Journal (August 30 1773): Supplement 2; Massachusetts Spy (September 2 1773): 4.

4 Providence Gazette (July 9 1774): 4.

5 Massachusetts Spy (October 23 1776): 4.

6 Miller, “Calendar,” 7.

On the Chocolate Trail

On the Chocolate Trail